onsdag 10. desember 2014

No. 830: Moritz Rabinowitz - the man who was falling in "love" with Haugesund!

No. 830:
Moritz Rabinowitz - the man who was falling in "love"  with Haugesund!

Moritz Rabinowitz is something more than just a trader. He was a proud Jew and a believer who saw the danger Hitler and Nazi Germany successfully than they or people. It cost him too and his famille life. Norway were not able to give him the protection he needed. But it is also written about him in retrospect.
This experience I like very interesting and rewarding. Memory statue of him in Haugesund former Conservative policies and parliamentary president Jo Benkow unveiled I was involved in, this was in 1986.

Daniel Magnus Aadnesen: Moritz Rabinowitz [- an epitome of a biography]
Source: Yearbook Karmsund 1984-1986. pp. 57-72.


Photo: Moritz Rabinowitz and daughter Edith.
Jews in Eastern Europe
In 1897 there lived about 5 million Jews in a belt from the Baltic to the Black Sea, says Martin Gilbert in his book "The Jews of Russia." There were either escaped or forced to move over the preceding centuries both before and after the Russian occupation of area. Here lived the Jews as large minorities among the people who inhabited these areas from before. From this area, it was Moritz Rabinowitz came to Norway in 1909.
Moritz Rabinowitz was born in the village Rajgrod in Poland on 20 September 1887. The place is located in the countryside Bialystok northeast of the country close to the town Agustow near the border with Lithuania and Belarus (Belarus). Some mil further south is the town of Bialystok, the center of the area.
M. Rabinowitz was the son of Isaac Levi and Chaia Rosa. He had two sisters. As long as he lived, he sent each month money to them at home in Poland. In 1914 came his younger brother, Herman Herschel to Norway. He was educated watchmaker. One time he lived in Haugesund, but settled down later in Bergen retailer of men's clothing. Otherwise, we know little about the family of M. Rabinowitz.
In Haugesund Avis Saturday 6 May 1939 rendered it a letter which M. Rabinowitz had received from "a close relative in Palestine, a police soldier." There is a picture of the man in uniform, but the kinship to Rabinowitz is not mentioned.
The overriding part of the Jewish population in Eastern Europe was very poor. Jews were subject to special laws which further impoverished and humiliated them. For example, they had a long period 25 years military service. Both before and after the Russian annexation of the area worked Jews as "scapegoats" for both locals and government. This gave often resulted in massacres, rape, theft of property and burning of houses and synagogues. Such actions called on the Russian for "prog Roman".
At a Jew hostile posts in Haugesund Avis 1923 responds Rabinowitz part: "During my stay in Russia in 1906, I have personally witnessed some prog Roman; and it is not freely that for famous people have been murdered and abused in barbaric manner. "In a newspaper debate with a debater year before, he had told: "... that in 1905 and 1906 using Russian police were foranstaltet massacres of Jews in over a hundred cities. I was a spectator to one of these progromene in Bjalistok. Three day massacre demanded 200 victims and damage values in millions. "
Martin Gilbert can book "The Jews of Russia" tell that by this incident killed 80 Jews each day in Bijalitstok and that this was the second progromen here in four years. In the decades before and after the turn of the century increased refugee flow of Jews from these areas greatly. Brothers Rabinowitz went to Norway in 1909.
Dynamic business talent
A brief period he was salesman in a business in Bergen. He also tried life as itinerant Cloth merchant. Without capital, but with courage and work glow he settled in Haugesund in 1911. "Sausjord house" in Kaigata there was a small cafe, a local he took office, says Arne Askeland.
Rabinowitz 'career got a modest beginning. A suit and a coat the entire inventory. Coat as he hung on a tripod outdoors, was stolen, so he was left with only the suit. But with diligence and successfully worked his way up and after a few years of course he could buy master baker OR MALMIN estate in Strandgata.
Here the company grew significantly so he could start branches in Odda, Sauda, Stavanger, Egersund and Kristiansand. Elsewhere he had commissioners, such as B. Pedersen and later Arnt Nordnes in Skudesneshavn brothers Ludvigsen in Sagvåg. 11. January 1932 may Hauge Avis tell that Rabinowitz firm has been building Council recommendation to establish connection time between Haraldsgata 166 and building Strandgata so there was access from both streets.
The bank accounts were never large, but the profits were invested in new enterprises. Rabinowitz was not content with sales of clothing and footwear. In 1929 he started Crust factory Condor. The first years the factory had premises different places in town, but so was Condor building erected where Lio Flotmyr hold until today. Condor was laid out as a pattern factory after careful studies of similar factories abroad.
In his thesis "Business, employment and unemployment in Haugesund 1930-1939" writes Roald Jostein Thorsen under chapter "Clothing and clothing" including: Gross product at the textile factory was in 1939 under a million dollars, and this was a doubling during a five year period. This represented one of Haugesund main workplaces for women in the 1930s.
The factory supplied not only Rabinowitz 'own business with sales items, but he also ran sales wholesale. It had 100 men working, but was filed for a workforce of 350 which was the final destination. In 1940 employed Rabinowitz 140 people total. Since he believed Haugesund not had a representative hotel to offer for the travelers, he started Bristol Hotel on the quayside. This was small, but the standard premium.
Condor building was not only used as a factory. Here was also the great Condor hall that was suitable for cultural activities. Here were held concerts, and the owner advertised in the newspapers that "Vestlandets finest concert hall" could be rented for different purposes. Although founded Rabinowitz "Lecture Society of 1936" which met in concert venue. He was chairman of footwear traffickers association in Haugesund and member of the action committee of the local industrial union.
He gave advice and disseminated international contacts for other merchants in town, but priority purchase of Norwegian goods although they were 10% more expensive than the foreign. He was efforts of local enthusiasts and lived prophet Jeremiah 29.7: "Make sure the city I have brought you up to, must have peace and prosperity."

M. Rabinowitz married Johanne Goldberg who was born 10 June 1892 in Zipvo in western Prussia. She was the daughter of a cantor of Goldberg in Berlin where it seemed the synagogue Fried Stamp 1930s. The couple had a daughter Rabinovitz Edith, born 16 August 1918 in Haugesund. The family lived first in business built in Strandgata. They later moved upstairs to Condor building.
Ms. Rabinowitz was a time cashier in Haugesund store, but she still felt isolated from the population of the city. Therefore moved mother and daughter in 1927 to Bergen, where Rabinowitz bought an apartment for the family. She had good contact with sister Rosa, married Hermann Rabinowitz. Moritz came to visit almost every weekend, until John was sick and died on 25 November 1939.
During a visit to Stavanger was Edith become familiar with a Jewish refugee who lived with the family Fein in Berliner bassaren. The young man's name was Hans Reichwald and he was born in Austria on 29 September 1916. It was marriage; and the couple Reichwald consternation Rabinowitz branch in Kristiansand, called "City Dress Magazine A / S" Their son Harry was born in Bergen on 23 November 1940.
Rabinowitz and staff
The reason that Eastern European Jewish refugee was a watershed for Rabinowitz. Strongest imperative was to ensure the economic conditions of their families. Worldviews also included business ethics of caring for employees. In 1933 published Moritz Rabinowitz a small book on self-publishing "World War and we". In the chapter "Individual life plan" he performs requirements for occupational groups and the authorities.
Basically philosophical over their own profession, employers. Firms should be characterized by equality and equality; and openness and interaction is a basic prerequisite for prosperity in the workplace. So was also company motto: "The Customer trust, our highest goal."
Community involvement
In keeping with Jewish tradition, he ran also with charitable work. In his hometown, there were many who over the years got enjoy his kind heart. At Christmas he sent packages to the prisoners in the city jail and when Blue Cross or Seamen Association commanded into Christmas party, frequented the presents on the participants. On Sanitary Association orphanage gave him shoes to all children every Christmas. Silver wedding selected family Rabinowitz giving a part of the area "Åkrasanden" Karmøy with a view to establishing a recreation place for Haugesund residents.
More familiar is his efforts as chairman of the hunger emergency committee of Vienna which collected 70,000, of which NOK 30,000 came from Haugesund. Haugesund presidency rejected an application from Spain Committee for assistance to the needy during the Civil War. In an article in Haugesund Avis (HA) urged Rabinowitz municipality to allocate 3.000 kr. The amount was not the most important, but the will to help, as he himself described the project.
Regarding aid to Finland in 1939, he uttered in HA 11 January 1940: "There must be started a powerful financial support action. With gifts alone can not the Finnish people freed from the barbarians claws. All civilized states must enable several years of war in defense of Finland ". Collection of clothing and shoes could only be a first step in the process.

Combating Antisemitism
Norwegians attitudes towards Jews have varied since 1814. Some revered them as "Bible people." But also in Scandinavia led foreign cultural skepticism prejudice. We recall also Wergelands "repentance" in relation to the Jewish section of the constitution. Few have well studied the Norwegian attitudes in the interwar period as thoroughly as the duo Stian Bromark and Dag Herbjørnsrud in the book "Norway - a little piece of world history (Cappelen, 2005). Why rendered not haugesund forwards his love for them?
During World War 1. increased xenophobia palpable. Central Passport, contemporary UDI, controlled by Leif Konstad Ragnvald, interpreted in 1939 entry rules most restrictive and destitute Jews were rejected even though it was set financial guarantee for them. Jewish culture and religious practices were otherwise criminalized long before the outbreak of war.
After Hitler came to power in 1933, sent Central Passport information about refugees even to German authorities. There were arguments diligently noted aimed at potential military actions on Scandinavian soil. Thus found our Jewish compatriots in Nazi archives everything before the war. Government Nygaardsvold shielded ie whether an illegal prakis towards the Jews. This relieved obviously Gestapo thugs selection of opponents, prepared by statisticians everything at the outbreak of war.
In the 1920s and 30s threw Moritz Rabinowitz himself strenuously out in debate on anti-Semitism in the local press. The polemic could apply topics as the Jewish faith, the unlikely theory of a Jewish world conspiracy, Judaism and capitalism in all sorts of varieties and the Aryan race theory. Also capital city-baler got teven newspaper debates with western lawyer Saxlund.
In an article in Haugesund Avis 13th June 1923 wrote Rabinowitz: "I do not prohibit hr. Saxlund to hate Jews. It says he is free to hate anyone. But he should use clean weapons and understand the case he debates ". After this feud was factory owner discussed so disrespectful of editor Sylten the "National Journal" that it was appealed because he felt insulted as an individual and a Jew. The result was that the wording had to be declared null and void legally in July 1927, all accompanied Oskar Mendelsohn in Jewish history in Norway.
In Karmøy Post he wrote 12 May 1933 that Jews thirsting for blood and revenge, but longed own country, peace and justice. As happened in response to the dr. Alf Mjøen who had a race biologically and antisemittistisk posts in Aftenposten on 6 April 1933. And factory owner continued argument on 22 May in the same Karmøy Posten: "They are out in the greatest delusion when they believe that Jews only maker after money, first of all, we seek knowledge. If conditions had been favorable, the Jews would rather be farmers than moneychangers.
Tuesday, 16 July 1935 takes Rabinowitz for themselves Christians lukewarmness of the Jews in Karmøy Posten, this time under the title "The German emigrants unhappy existence. Appeal to the Christian world. "For unheard there to sell entry pass to neutral countries against blood money, to return refugees to Hitler and a demise of torture and executions. Culturally conscious Europeans can not just stand idly to the barbaric drama that are eating away the old culture nations. For Jewry as under King Solomon was not larger than a few Norwegian counties, then can hardly threaten Hitler visions of "Lebensraum" for "Gross-Deutschland"!

Rabinowitz and Nazism
Moritz Rabinowitz was cosmopolitan business contacts in many countries. A rich library testify interest political, social and economic conditions. He has faith in free enterprise and private initiative. Stewardship is key. In 1933, he had little faith in the political upstart from beer halls in Munich had to stumble against the strong German culture background.
People would then realize that dictator germ unsuitable as messiah in Chancellor palace. Nor in the fight against the Jews would Hitler be victorious, for it is impossible to stop the social development and cultural progress. For funds from the Crusades era is inapplicable in our days. For a bitterness he had to feel in acknowledging that "Fuehrer" folkeforføreren in Berlin, had to be a madman. As prophets felt Rabinowitz obliged to warn against the consequences of Nazism.
In retrospect it is not difficult to understand that the energetic intellectuals had provoked Nazi sympathizers at home and on the continent. A German newspaper called him "Jewish secular leader in Norway." This suggests that he had hit "achilles heel" and thus ideologically taken seriously. "Hitler has in its short heyday after 1933 instilled a poison in the young German soul that makes the young generation inept in relations with human and healthy minded people," Rabinowitz in Karmøy Post 21 June 1933.
Nazi message is that youth should learn to hate foreign nations, and learn to kill when the command is given. "He quotes from the biography Mein Kampf and Nazi literature and impresses with facts and details. Therefore, he can stamp Hitler antisemite and that attacks by the term "Israel". In Karmøy Post 12 February 1934 he yells therefore "Britannia, give us the land (Palestine), while we live!"
Almost visionary he predicts in Karmøy Post 27 April 1934: "Should the hatred and threats continue for some time, we have a new world war within 10 years, and with the technical and chemical advances will any man understand what Europe is moving in the face." Almost as clairvoyant he revealed later in Haugesund Avis 28th August 1934 that non aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany just had to be a cover and an interlude in the division of Europe.
So far had Rabinowitz done their utmost to rouse the local, Norwegian public opinion. It did not have to close your eyes to the possibility of meltdowns. After all it was fertile ground for Nazism in Norwegian society; many believed the Jews were to blame for the depression of the interwar period. In despair changed Rabinowitz perspective and sent a telegram to the national president Hindenurg in Berlin on 1 April 1932 President Roosevelt on 18 July 1935 and Prime Minister Chamberlain 10 December 1938 and asked them all save Germany's Jews. As enlightened and thoughtful man, he had to suffer over the fate of a population with a common origin.
Norwegians must be prepared for war can come here to this country. It is too late to build warships, but coastal fort and my belts can prevent Norway attacked. The risk is that we may lose our independence, "for the predator does not ask if you want." Is freedom first lost, let it difficult to win back. Only the persecuted realize quite what freedom is. Steadfast to the last he stated on 11 January 1940 Haugesund Avis "We must see the truth in your eyes, and we must be prepared for the worst. No sacrifice is too heavy. The problem now is to live or die. "His last Inserat came April 9th. An assurance that Norwegian Jews are willing to sacrifice their lives for the motherland.
10 April 1940 the Germans arrived at Haugesund after completion of the attack on Norway. Rabinowitz was the first Germans asked for on the spot. It was on the cards that he should he be punished for negative exposure of the Hitler regime. Rabinowitz hid first in some smallholdings in Vikedal and Skånevik.
Gestapo chief Heinrich Stochaus was constantly at his heels since Rabinowitz tried to keep in touch with family and employees in Haugesund. As expected, there were some who gossiped to Gestapo so he was arrested. From Stavanger jail he was sent to Møllergata 19, from 22 May to Stettin with catching vessel "Monte Rosa". German archives testify that he died in Sachsenhausen on 27 November 1942. His daughter, grandchild, in-law and a brother died in Auschwitz.
Afterword v / PER GJENDEM
What criteria is it that makes us Norwegians? The issue was highlighted in 1995 when the Norwegian homogeneity impugned. Had social democracy allowed themselves excessively idyllizing, through skrytevokabularet? Issues must have a collection of shared values to do, the global or generally sanctioned battle. From different political standpoint talking pundits about a set of national values, often portrayed as a kind of Norwegian "canon".
We gladly accept that politics was unidirectional, but the opposition was thus simply not abolished in the population. The Norwegian party pressa driver anyway despite good intentions also with national policy selection. National Celebrities and media researchers eager constantly that voters should internalize a certain type båstenkning related to positions of power in society. Although NRK political experts ready to interpret what politicians have said. But what happens if the LO members start voting on various parties and reveals they have not loyalty reserved for the coalition camp figureheads?
Kjendisbeundringen is another aspect of the Norwegian identification process. Celebrity Boast gives imported, gain on party barometer. But in television age, not much before a flood of voters who by magic disappearing to competing parties. Bjørnson and Fritjof Nansen was secure reference persons in contemporary culture does certainly not all the world for the rising generation.
From own youth, I think of the future idols, which Hjalmar Andersen, Hallgeir Brenden, Odd Iversen from the world of sport, but perhaps more importantly mood creators from Leif Juster, Henki Kolstad to Rolf Kirkvaag and Erik Bye. Not least was one could assume that the popular singer secured seafarers votes at the polls. Martin Kolberg have a harder working than in Labour's supreme prime.
Most people realized that a new era was ushered in when Crown Prince Olav was received ovations to the seniors pier at Oslo City Hall in 1945. A huge folkeforføring was when everything started in the scenes. Has anyone not yet realized what I mean, they should consult Harald Berntsen nøkkelbok "Prime coup" (Downtown, 2006).
Yet we were a nation of radio listeners, and on Saturday night we got with us Rolf Rustad in "Around Around" from Large Studio. Kjell Arnljot Viks debate programs on the other hand seemed God wretchedly formalistic and pompousness of form and content. Striking in the first post-war period there was also the backyard politicians who did not follow Nygaardsvold to exile, could bask in the glory of the royal family and commandos from "Utefronten".
Since government soundings after the war could social democracy convince large sections of the Norwegian people that it was AP that had created the welfare state through industrialization and hydropower development. Thus they took credit for having initiated a golden age that the opposition must not be allowed to interfere with a lifetime later.
But as signs that modernizations are underway, the FRP voted on rails, since youth are long tired of what "grips shoulder dreiv on with the war," to cite the fast-talking Øystein Sunde. Idyll linked to the notion of the Norwegian social democracy gives at least the impression of being about to burst. Post-War Period was below the surface also marked by violence against intellectuals, gays, gypsies, German resounds and various dissidents.
Ronald Bye has shown that archive burning has been a Norwegian national sport. What was the population could not benefit from knowing? Not everyone is convinced that the entire truth will come to light when it finally be published a professional biography of "Milorg" -sjef Jens Christian Hauge who died a few years ago. Maybe that immigrant voices considered verdifullere than Oldis the Municipal sick homestead?
The topic raises today the old distinction between "us" and "them". This includes the majority treating society deviants, ranging from drug addicts, refugees and immigrants. Sixty percent return of asylum seekers to their home country is nothing new Jens Stoltenberg has taken on. Typical Norwegian is well completely different things. It shall not big imagination to believe it says something about "ourselves", which thus is suitable to reveal the mote in their own eye. For Norwegians is not the best at everything so countries moderation Gro Harlem Brundtland as self-adulation allowed himself to preach at a Nordic ministerial meeting in Stockholm.
Insinuation that Rabinowitz would have been too greedy to escape the Nazis, something he could well managed, is an expression of the most elementary leather motifs. For it was the love of Edith family prevented him from escaping to England or Sweden. Rabinowitz did not want to leave his pregnant daughter who bore his son Harry on 23 November 1940, when he still was hiding in a western Norwegian fjord. Unfortunately, he had too much confidence in us, his new compatriots whom he knew through a lifetime, and which he loved. But unfortunately regarded businessman with suspicion.
How could one of the politically most wanted people in Europe remain a "non-person" for the Norwegian public for 60 years? Related it so happened that Rabinowitz not fit into a Norwegian self 1940 and the same little changed 60 years later? It did not suit the Norwegian husmannsånden that Rabinowitz seemed so blasé continental of orientation, and who arguably played intellectual and swell.
With its large commitment he made it not easier for himself when he warned against Nazism march. Unaccustomed was also his argument for common European collection about the humanitarian democracy and a common currency ("euro"). This troublesome Jew manager was a voice that Hitler would get rid of all of all.
Some reports in Dagens Næringsliv led in 1995 to the process of giving Jews compensation for loss of life and fortunes 50 years earlier, got started. Rabinowitz-wealth should have been used to hire barracks, while Norwegian Nazis did purchase confiscated drugs and fixtures cheap as lubrication of Nazi attitude. Then followed surprising introduction of acclaimed "Kathe, always been in Norway" by magister Espen Søbye, employed by Statistics Norway.
Shortly after launch in January Haukeland and Tore Vollan a Norwegian documentary "The man who loved Haugesund". Some letters and pictures had not been burned. Once could among other movie expert Per Haddal ask how it was how Holocaust victims Kathe Lasnik and Moritz Rabinowitz since trace could disappear from the collective memory of Norwegian post-war period. Is Norway on every show an outside country?
Rabinowitz retained clairvoyance and blurted not as Arnulf Øverland and Nordahl Grieg in the Stalinist quagmire. While Norwegian intellectuals in droves ended under Stalin red tabs, retained Rabinowitz their intellectual distance, for barbarism was tied to the totalitarian regimes regardless hue. So had when Stalin and Hitler the socialist superstructure common. The man "who loved Haugesund" and the west Norwegian locals, experienced at last that most Norwegians acted as disinterested heimfødinger on the sidelines. Neither the Norwegian government had cared a jot about the threat of war which threatened the motherland. Neither did one the possibility of a race for invasion in Scandinavia.
Interest prophetic could Rabinowitz at the end of the 1930s envision dangers that threatened Norway without people or politicians would hear talk about the danger that had not yet hit them. The effects of "the broken rifle" s policy did not disappear by itself in the period 1935-1940. How did it happen that Rabinowitz at the end of the 1930s to fight against both citizen media and Aftenposten which was largely German friendly, yet also against the Communists and the Stalin-worshiping authors Towards Day. Great Norwegian Encyclopaedia does not sacrifice Rabinowitz a word of comment.
Our Jewish compatriot is not yet an entry worth. For Rabinowits not belong those sanctioned Norwegian quite creatures that can is polished in speeches. Here lies buried the dog. The immigrant was not properly Norwegian enough. Simultaneously stock Berge Furre Karsten Alnes and Rune Slagstad a glossy picture of the self-proclaimed heroes of Gerhardsen era in Norwegian politics. The description has, I would argue, not stood its historical try; image of unity after the war is false bottom. The historical re-interpretation in the 1990s, dekonstruksjonalismen speaks of uniformity and political propaganda. No wonder that frontfighters yet terminates the stereotypical jødegespenstet from his youth.
Knowledge Lift was nothing of spite bourgeois mobilization effort under Bondevik 2; and infrastructure rotting from the roots. Now is the time ripe for "court historian" should find themselves more useful activities to keep on with than folkeforføring as the history books in high school. Arguably has overkinkadorer Ole Chr. Grimnes and Magne Skodvin revealed lack of academic integrity long ago. Politicians constantly painter's own cake, lose not only the respect but also squandered petroleum wealth in a short time through unfortunate dispositions.
Consult also:
1 Svein Rune Nyland: A Jew's history. Romsdals Budstikke, Culture, March 2004. [The Man Who Loved Haugesund. Norway Premiere. Director: Jon Haukeland and Tore Vollan. Time: 59 minutes,. Censorship: all. Country / year: Norway / 2003].
2: Einar Guldvog Staalesen: The Man Who Loved Haugesund. NRK.no published 30.01. 2004. Directed by Jon Haukeland and Tore Vollan. [Highlights: Outside the good citizenship, the Nazi regime enemy nr.én. Man interest us. Engaging movie.] Darkness experiences. NRK P2 Friday 30 January 2004.

Related Links: http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2014/11/no-799-top-of-nazi-list-story-of-moritz.html



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