søndag 29. april 2012

Nr. 296: How often Jesus taught that prayer and worship should be directed to the Trinity, God's spirit or himself?

Nr. 296:

How often Jesus taught that prayer and worship should be directed to the Trinity, God's spirit or himself?

By Fred Vidar Hjortland

If we read the word of God through so we never find any place that a spirit is presented as a separate person that this is suddenly the Spirit of God is a person who is to believe that the Big Bang or other hypotheses! To believe that the three gods took each other out in space and became a god, is to me more unlikely the Big Bang theory. There is only one God who is before all, Father. Jesus is created or brought to pass out of the Father and the Holy Ghost is no separate Gude Person teaches writing, but part of God or God's energy and power!

In the preceding pages we have seen that Jesus never talked about the Triune God, never called himself God and never spoke of the spirit as a divine person. As we face the question of who it is right to pray to and worship, I will begin to reason out a little from just these three conditions. My first thought is that it must seem quite incomprehensible that he never spoke of a triune God would teach someone to pray to and worship the Triune God! How on earth is it possible to imagine such a thing? How can Jesus teach his disciples to pray to God when trepersons he never mentions a trepersons God?

Furthermore, I think: How could anyone bring themselves to believe that he never called himself God, still had a desire that people should pray for himself and prepare himself as God? How is it possible to think such a thought? For Jesus' Jewish disciples, we know that it basically was completely unthinkable to pray to or worship a man. And when the man Jesus - who walked around the dusty sandals with them - as well as continually emphasized his humanity by calling both man and man's son and also never have said of himself that he was God, how can we "make it hang on a fork "that his disciples began to pray to him and worship him? My third and last argument is: How could he never spoke of the spirit as a divine person, teach someone to pray to and worship the spirit as a divine person? Or in other words: How can a statement that seems absurd and contradictory held up as a true and correct? One may wonder. Do you sort of imagine that the disciples said to Jesus: We do not believe that neither you nor your spirit is divine persons, it goes completely against our Jewish faith, and it's not something you have learned. But we would still like to pray to and worship you and your spirit! Furthermore, we do not believe in any trepersons God, for it is totally foreign to us, and it is not something you have learned. But we will still pray to and worship the triune God! Everyone will probably agree with me that the disciples hardly said anything like that! But what did they do? What were they? Is it possible to formulate a reasonable and plausible about the alleged thought processes with the disciples who brought them forward to the conviction that other than Yahweh, the God of Israel, should be able to and worshiped? For me personally, it seems that prayer and worship of Jesus, God's Spirit and the Trinity simply does not fit into either of thought or religious purposes, the whole biblical witness! But let us now turn from these initial reflections have some good Bible studies. What Jesus actually learn about who we are to pray to and worship?

As a first point, we begin by looking closer at about prayer and worship is ever directed to the Triune God in the Gospels. When we scroll through Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, we find Bible verses that say something like, of: Dear Father, Son and Holy Spirit, we pray .... Or three Almighty, we praise you? I can not find any! No verse, nothing that resembles or is near! And it's really not a bit strange. For when Jesus and the apostles never ever speak of treperson God, but always think of God as Father, then of course you will not find any instructions to ask for such an unknown and complex deity! We are satisfied with just a couple of quotes in this context. They are short and concise, but says all that needs to be said: Our Lord never prayed to the Trinity, and never commanded us to pray to the Trinity. (Dr. Edward Harwood, DD, Five Dissertations, as quoted in: The Monthly review - or - Literary Journal, Volume 47, London, 1772, Ed. Ralph Griffiths) There is not enshrined in the Bible one praise or prayer or any other form of worship that is directed against the Father, Son and Spirit, or to a trinity of any kind. The tradition of singing praises and end with prayers to dedicate them to the Father, Son and Spirit, has absolutely no support in Scripture, neither in terms of direct teaching or in terms of examples. (Charles Morgridge, The True Believers Defence, Boston, 1837, p.38) Let us now take a closer look at prayer and worship in relation to God's spirit. What does Jesus teach us about this? When we go to the Gospels and investigate, we see clearly that Jesus never ever taught anyone to pray to or worship the spirit. Jesus never said: I praise you Holy Spirit because you ..... Or: Thank you Holy Spirit because you ...... Nor does he sat down with his disciples and said: When you pray, you sometimes say: Dear Holy Spirit, who art in heaven ......

God's spirit is simply never prayed to or worshiped ever, neither in the Gospels or in any other scripture in the Bible! Here are some statements that confirm this observation: The Holy Spirit is in the New Testament never made the subject of prayer or worship. (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol.4, p.916) Prayer directed against the Holy Spirit is unknown in the NT. People ask "in" the Spirit (Acts 7:55; Ef.6: 18, Jude 20), but never "to" the Spirit. Never ever say: "Come, Holy Spirit." Most important of all, Yeshua's own example. When he once rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, he said: "I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth" (Luke 10:21). The fact that he was in the Spirit, led him to recognize the Spirit as a person separate from the Father. When Jesus prays, he seeks advice from the Father, not the Spirit. When he says: I am not alone, as he points to the Father as the one who is with him, "Father is with me" (John 4:32 p.m.; cf. 8:16.29). (Paul Sumner, Worship in the New Testament - the remapping Land, in MISHKAN, issue No.25, 1996, editor: Thorleif Elgvin) In the New Testament we find no examples of prayers addressed directly to the Holy Spirit. This was a practice that first arrived on the scene much later after the Trinity doctrine had been clarified. (Peter Toon (Anglican scholar), Our Triune God, p.226) There is nothing in the New Testament to suggest that the Spirit was prayed to or worshiped. (Arthur Wainwright, cited in Patrick Navas, Divine Truth or Human Tradition, Authorhouse, 2007, p.475) Spirit as such is never a stated object of worship and New Testament is never said to engage in any kind of personal interaction with the Father and the Son. (New Theological Dictionary (Catholic), article: Trinity) In the New Testament, we find neither the texts that require or texts that describe worship or prayer to the Holy Spirit. (Millard Erickson, God in Three Persons, p.234) The Holy Spirit was not the subject of prayer or worship among the early Christians. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The fact that God's spirit will never ever be asked to or worshiped in the gospels, clearly shows that Jesus and the disciples continued a Jewish understanding of God's spirit. None of them thought Trinitarian. So far we have seen that Jesus never taught anyone to pray to the Triune God or praying to God's spirit. Let us finally look at how it relates to the issue of prayer and worship in relation to Jesus himself. Here I think it is appropriate to review the prayer and worship separately. First a little about prayer. Are there examples in the Gospels that someone was praying to Jesus? Did Jesus ever his disciples that they should pray to him? The first thing we can affirm is that no person ever pray to Jesus as if he would be their God. One example of this is found in none of the Gospels! Of course, pray for the sick and needy to him constantly for help, but they do because they think that he is a prophet and the anointed and equipped by God in a special way with the power to heal - not because he is God! Even a synagogue Board can ask Jesus for help this way! So we can affirm that no prayed to Jesus. But Jesus said to His disciples, however, that they should pray to him? Is it plausible that Jesus taught his disciples that they should pray to him - no one did it? Readers can make their own reflections.

When we sit down and read the four Gospels, we see that such a doctrine is not definitely assigned to Jesus in the three synoptic gospels. And in the Gospel of John we find in the whole, no hint of something like that. However, in this gospel, we have a simple cross that needs some further discussion, namely Joh.14: 14 The interested reader refer to my book "Jewish prayer tradition and Yeshua Ha Mashiach" in which this verse is a more complete text critical review. There, I conclude that both internal and external text critical factors point clearly indicate that this verse originally contained no learning about the prayer to Jesus! Here in this study I will only do two things. I will first display a table with a brief overview of text-critical moments, and then I'll list some Bibles translate the verse completely different than what we see in No-2011. First list of text-critical elements. The table below contains much important information and may with advantage be studied carefully. (See next page) Approximate time of the creation of text: Various Church Fathers and early versions: Has the form "ask me": Does the form "ask", "ask the Father," or omit the verse: After year 500 Slavonska (about 870) Ethiopia (600) Philoxenian / Harclean (508) X The second half 400's Syrian-Palestinian Euthymius (Palestine) The first half 400 - number Syrian Peshitta Armenian (c. 430) Augustine (North Africa) Nonnus (Egypt) The second half 300's Victorinus (Rome) Cyril (Jerusalem) Vulgate (Jeronimus) (383) Gothic (350) (Most of the MSS) The first half of 300 - the number Georgian (uncertain date of the translation, but the people were converted to Christianity at this time) Fathers of the Church would guarantee have cited and discussed Joh.14: 14 If Jesus had preached here a new and revolutionary learning about who you should pray to. But the interesting thing is that none of the early church fathers quoted Joh.14: 14 over your head! They seem to be completely unfamiliar with that in the Gospel of John was there a verse that contained a radically new teaching about prayer. The second half 200's The oldest Coptic dialect version, Sahidic. Later, after other Coptic dialects of the same reading as follows: copbo copach-2 and copfay The first half 200 - Indirect century witnesses: Origen, Tertullian and Cyprian teaches that we should only pray to God the Father! The second half 100's Vetus Syriac (c. 180-220) (Curetonian, Sinaiticus, Palestinian) Vetus Latina (180) (It = all or most MSS) Diatessaron (c. 170) (Diatessaron f, l, t) The first half 100 - number Indirect Witnesses Polycarp (c. 120) and Aristides (c. 125-130), only prayers addressed to God the Father! Estimated around or a little before the year 100 Indirect evidence: The first Christians kirkeordning letter (Didache, ca70-90) The first Christian letter (1 Clemens Letter, about 96), and the first Christian sermon by NT (2 Clemens Letters, 100), teaches all clearly and unambiguously that the beans only should be directed to God the Father! Many Bible translators have - not particularly surprising - considered the overall text critical material to be clearly in favor of a representation of Jn 2:14 p.m. without learning about the prayer to Jesus. Here are some examples: Norwegian: The Bible (1865): If I asked for Something in my name, I will do it. The New Testament, Erik Gunnar (1969): Yes, every prayer prayed in my name, I will fulfill. 1975 - The Norwegian Bible Society: If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. 1975 - The Norwegian Bible Society (nynorsk) the B if something in my name, I will do it. 1978 - The Norwegian Bible Society: If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. A living book (1989): Yes, ask anything in my name and I'll do it! The Bible the Word of God (1997): If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. The four gospels (Jacob Jervell - 2002): If ye ask anything in my name, I will do it. Norwegian King James (2003): If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. Danish: Dansk Standard (1933): If I asked for anything in my name, I will gore them. Bible in everyday Danish: Listen carefully after, What end pray for in my name, I will gore. Swedish: The Heliga Font, HM Melin (1865): If I bedjen något in my name, the shells rushing Gora. Swedish Bible (1917) Yes, if I bedjen on något in my name, so I shall göra it. David Hedegaard, (1964): About nine out of något pray in my name, shell göra rush it. NT, Verbum Förlag, (1971): Yes, about nine requests något in my name, so shell göra rush it. NT, (Bibelkommissionen - 1981): About nine requests något in my name, shell göra rush it. A living book (1987): ask for VAD any time, and and använd is my name, so ska jag göra it. Swedish Bible (2000): About nine requests något in my name, shell göra rush it. English: John Wycliffe Bible (1395): If ye Axén ony thing in my name, Y Schal do it. Tyndale (1537): Yf ye Shall ax eny thige in my name I will do it. Geneva Bible (1587): If ye Shall ash any thing in my Name, I will doe it. King James Version (1611): If ye Shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it. Noah Webster Bible (1833): If ye Shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it. Young's Literal Translation (1862): If ye ask anything in my name I will do (it). Darby (1890): "If ye Shall ask anything in my name, I will do it." American Standard Version (1901): If ye Shall ask anything in my name, That will I do. Twentieth Century New Testament (1904): If you ask anything, in my Name, I will do it. Weymouth Bible (1913): If You Will ask anything in my name, That will I do. Williams NT (1937): Yes, I repeat it, anything you ask for as bearers of my name, ..... The Revised English Bible: If you ask anything, in my name, I will do it Revised Standard Version (1946): "If you ask anything in my name, I will do it." The New English Bible (1961): If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. The Jerusalem Bible (1966): If you ask for anything in my name, I will do it. Today's English Version (1966): If you ask anything, in my Name, I will do it. The Revised Berkeley Version (1970): I will do whatever you ask in My name. Green's Literal Translation (1976): If you ask anything in My Name, I will do it. New King James Version (1982): If you ask anything in My name, I will do it Amplified Bible (1987): (Yes) I will grant ... whatever you ask Shall in My Name ... The Message (EH Peterson) (1993): Whatever you request in this way, I'll do. New Living Translation (1996): Yes, ask anything in my name, and I will do it! Complete Jewish Bible (1998): If you ask for something in my name, I will do it. Millenium Bible (1998): If ye Shall ask anything in My name, I will do it. The Original N.T. (Schonfield): If you ask anything, in my name, I will do it God's New Covenant (Cassirer): If you ask for anything in my name, I shall bring it about The N.T. Everyman's Library: If ye Shall ask anything in My name, I will do it The Four Gospels, EV Rieu: Ask for anything in my name, I will do it. World English Bible: If You Will ask anything in my name, I will do it. The Book of Books: If you ask anything, in my name, I will do it English Majority Text Version: If you ask anything Hubble in My name, I will do it. Worldwide English New Testament: If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. The Way (The Catholic Living Bible): Yes, ask anything, overusing my name, and I will do it The New English Bible: If you ask anything, in my name, I will do it Jewish N.T. (David H. Stern) (1998): If you ask for something in my name, I will do it Hebrew Names Version (2000): If You Will ask anything in my name, I will do it. German: Luther (1545): Was ihr bit werden in meinem Namen das ich tun goodwill Elberfelder (1871): Wenn ihr etwas bit werden in meinem Namen, so werde ich es yard Schlachter (1951): Wenn ihr etwas in meinem Namen bit Werder, so werde ich es yard French: Martin (1744): Si vous a mon demandez Nom quelques chose, je la ferai Louis Segond (1979): Si vous demandez quelques chose a mon nom, je le ferai Darby (1991): Si vous demandez quelques chose a mon nom, moi, je le ferai Oster Violence (1996): Si vous demandez quelques chose a mon nom, je le ferai Netherlands: Dutch (The State Verta Ling) (1995): Zo gij ob cup Zulte in Mijn Naam, Ik Zal called loo. Italian: Giovanni Diodati (1649): See Voi chiedete Cosa alcuna nel mio Autonomous, io la Faro. Riveduta (1927): See chiederete qualche Cosa nel mio Autonomous, io la Faro. Il Nuovo Testamento in Lingua Moderna: Quindi see chiederete qualche Cosa nel mio Autonomous, io la faro! We round out the enumeration of Bible translations here. Personally, I know to well over a hundred Bibles around the world who do not teach prayer to Jesus in John 2:14 p.m.! As you can see it is therefore quite impossible to say that Jesus teaches prayer to himself in Joh.14: 14 He does not in fact - if you read this verse in a variety of other Bible translations! Millions of Christians around the world who use other Bible versions than the Norwegian Bible 2011, the completely puzzled by having to argue that prayers should be directed towards Jesus on the basis of this verse. In our neighboring countries Sweden, where there seems to be a broad consensus that John 2:14 p.m. will not be rendered in such a way that it teaches prayer to Jesus, for example, such arguments find little appeal! As I see it, Joh.14: 14 therefore impossible to make something good and valid argument that prayers can be directed to Jesus! Here are some interesting statements that are relevant to both John 2:14 p.m. and the whole question of whether Jesus taught his disciples to pray to himself or not: As long as there is doubt about what is the correct way of reading passages, it is definitely wrong to use such passages in support of any doctrine. (John Wilson: Scripture Proofs and Scriptural Illustrations of Unitarianism, London, 1837, p.259) No doctrine must be based on an uncertain biblical text. (Bernard L. Ramm, comments for Mark.16 0.9 to 20, quoted in Joseph Wilting "Lord, to whom shall we go?" s.235) Set isolation is not every scripture immediately clear. It is therefore necessary to read in context. It is in this context, a good rule that Scripture is its own interpreter: obscure texts to be read in light of the clear. Larger contexts should shed light on the obscure detail. (Ole Modalsli and Leif Gunnar Engedal, Evangelical faith, Luther Publishing, 1980, s.35) Jesus never taught that they should pray to him, but that they should always pray to the Father in his name. (James M. Campbell, The Place of Prayer in the Christian Religion, The Methodist Book Concern, New York Cincinnati, 2009, p.149) We have no examples in the New Testament that the needs were presented to Jesus but when he himself was visibly present for the person who came up with demand. All written prayers addressed to him as Father. (Lant Carpenter, Unitarian, The Doctrine of the Gospel: A View of the Scriptural Grounds of Unitarianism, 3 oath., Bristol, 1823, p.102-103)

Based on the example of Jesus and Jesus' teaching was a regular routine among the first Christians to pray to the Father. (Wayne R. Spear, The Theology of Prayer, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1979, p.9) When Jesus hears one of his disciples saying: "Teach us to pray," he begins to teach prayer to himself, but about the prayer to the Father. He says, "Our Father, who art in heaven," etc. We should therefore pray to God alone, who is the Father, but not without going through the high priest .... He did not say "ask me", and not just "pray to the Father" but "Whatsoever ye ask the Father, he will give you in my name." .... That's right, therefore, well over one with him who said, "why do you call me good? There is only one that is good - the Father" to assume that he would say, 'Why ask me? The Father alone do you pray to him that I also pray so that you learn from the Holy Scriptures. For you must not pray to the Father has appointed its high priest who has been asked to be their spokesperson ... It is not reasonable that those who have been considered worthy to have the same father to pray for a brother. For the Father alone, with me and through me, you have to send up their prayers. (Church Father Origen, (d. 254), About prayer, chapter 10) It appears, therefore, from the New Testament, the early Christians not directed their prayers to Christ. (Andrews Norton (a onetime professor in "Sacred Literature" at Harvard University), A Statement of Reasons, 3.ed., Boston, 1859, p.231) "Our Father, who art in heaven. Must be thy name ..." All over the earth is the heavenly Father accused of the earth's many languages. The prayer that Jesus taught us, it begins where prayer must begin - with the true and living God. (Edmund P. Clowney, Emeritus professor of practical theology forms and President of Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The Biblical Theology of Prayer, http://beginningwithmoses.org/oldsite/articles/btprayer.pdf) Thus, we can affirm that no praying to Jesus in the four Gospels and that Jesus does not ever instructed any of his listeners to do this. What about worship? Jesus is worshiped in the Gospels? The preliminary, brief and unsatisfactory answer to this question is the same as above: It depends on which Bible translation you read! NB In 2011, it seems as if Jesus is worshiped. But if I for example. had lived in Sweden and used the latest official Bible translation there (published in 2000), I would never read in the Gospels that Jesus was worshiped! The same would also have experienced if I had used Gunnes Norwegian translation from 1969 or such. The New English Bible from 1970! In order to understand how different Bibles can convey so totally different messages regarding whether Jesus was worshiped or not, it is necessary to look more closely at the Greek word proskyneô. Proskyneô is a word which means to bow down to the ground for some, and indirect: to celebrate or show honor. By the use of the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament was made about 150-200 BC and was the first Christian Bible, we see that this kind of respect in general appear to everyone they want to honor, regardless of condition or dignity . There are, for example. common that guests will be shown this honor: He (Abraham) lifted up his eyes, and behold, three men stood before him. When he saw them he ran to meet them from the tent door, bent to the ground (proskyneô), and said: .... (1.Mos.18: 2) When Lot saw them, he rose and went to meet them, bowed their faces to the earth (proskyneô) and said: .... (1.Mos.19: 1) Trading partners can also receive proskyneô: And Abraham rose up and bowed (proskyneô) for the country's people, for the children of Heth. (1.Mos.23: 7) All we want to honor and exalt can receive proskyneô: Although he (Jacob) in front of them and bowed himself seven times to the earth (proskyneô), until he came to his brother. (1, Mos.33: 3) And Joseph's brothers came and bowed to him in the face of the earth (proskyneô). (1.Mos.42: 6) Then all these emails (Pharaoh's) servants come down to me (Moses) and bow to me (proskyneô), and say .... (2.Mos.11: 8) Moses went to meet his father, bowed down to him (proskyneô) and kissed him. (2.Mos. 18:7) Then fell she (Ruth) on his face and bent to the ground (proskyneô) and said to him (Boaz): ... (Ruth 2:10) He (Jonathan) fell on their faces to the ground and bent (proskyneô) three times (for David). (1.Sam.20: 41) David bent (proskyneô) on his face and threw himself down (Saul). (1 Samuel. 24:9) And they (the Prophet's disciples) came to him and bent to the ground (proskyneô) for him (Elisa). (2.Kong.2: 15) And all the king's servants who were in the king's gate knelt down and bowed (proskyneô) for him (Haman). (Est.3: 2) ... and for you (Israel), they throw themselves down (proskyneô), you shall plead. (Isaiah 45:14) King Nebudkanesar fell on their faces and worshiped (proskyneô) Daniel. (Dan.2: 46)

Proskyneô are often directed against the king: She (Abigail) fell on his face before David and bowed to the ground (proskyneô). (1 Samuel. 25:23) She (the woman from Tekoa) fell down before him (proskyneô) (King David) on his face and said: .... (2.Sam.14: 4) He (Absalom) came to the king, and he threw himself on his face to the earth (proskyneô) for the king (David). (2.Sam. 14:33) Bathsheba bowed and bowed down (proskyneô) for the king (David). (1.Kong.1: 16) And he (the prophet Nathan) came in and stood before the king and bowed with his face to the earth (proskyneô) for him (David). (1.Kong.1: 23) And he (Adonijah) came and threw themselves down (proskyneô) to King Solomon. (1.Kong.1: 53) Then he went out of the threshing floor and bowed down (proskyneô) for David on his face. (1.Krøn.21: 21) But after Jehoiada's death came the princes of Judah and threw himself down (proskyneô) for the king. (2.Krøn.24: 17) For he (the king) is your master, and you (the king's bride) will fall (proskyneô) for him. (Psalm 45:12) Proskyneô appears to idols: and I throw myself down (proskyneô) where in the house of Rimmon .... (2.Kong.5: 18) He bowed down to them (proskyneô) (idols), and burned incense to them. (2.Krøn.25: 14) He makes a graven image of that which he falls down (proskyneô). (Jes.44: 15) The bent (proskyneô) to the east of the sun. (Ez. .8:16) Proskyneô appears to angels: He (Abraham) lifted up his eyes, and behold, three men (actually angels) stood before him. When he saw them he ran to meet them from the tent door, bent to the ground (proskyneô), and said: .... (1.Mos.18: 2) When Lot saw them (actually angels), he rose and went to meet them, bowed their faces to the earth (proskyneô) and said: .... (1.Mos.19: 1) Then the LORD opened Balaam's eyes, so he could see the angel, standing in the way with a drawn sword in his hand. Then he bent (proskyneô) and fell on his face. (4.Mos.22: 31) Proskyneô is shown against the true God: And it happened when Abraham's servant heard their words, he bowed to the ground (proskyneô) for the Lord. (1.Mos.24: 52) The whole assembly bowed (proskyneô) (the Lord) while the singers sang and the trumpeters sounded. (2.Krøn.29: 28) And they bowed down and threw himself down (proskyneô) for the Lord on his face. (Neh.8: 6) In front of your holy temple I throw myself down (proskyneô) in your fear. (Psalm 5:8) Exalt the Lord our God, throw you down (proskyneô) for his footstool, holy is he. (Psalm 99:5) I want to throw me down (proskyneô) before your holy temple. (Psalm 138:2) It is interesting to see that God and a human king can be shown proskyneô at the same time: And all the assembly blessed the LORD God of their fathers, and bowed and bowed down (proskyneô) for the Lord and the king. (1.Krøn.29: 20) This review of how proskyneô used in the Septuagint, shows clearly that this is not a word used only for the honor or worship the true God. The word, however, has a general and very broad scope! All that can be consumed, can be shown proskyneô! In the New Testament, we see that the word is used in exactly the same way. People are shown proskyneô (Matt.18: 26, Ap.gj.10: 25 and Rev 3: 9), idols are shown proskyneô (Ap.gj.7: 43, Åp.9: 20 and Åp.13: 4 ), angels appear proskyneô (Åp.22: 8), the Messiah appears proskyneô (Matt.28: 17, Hebr.1: 6) and God will be shown proskyneô (Matt.4: 10, Joh.4: 24 and Revelation .7:11). All that can be consumed, is shown proskyneô! In general, it must be said that the Oriental custom of bending to the ground for those you want to show honor and respect, can not possibly describe an act of worship itself. Had the word indicated something like that, would rob many famous people in the Bible been guilty of gross idolatry! The biblical material seems clearly to exclude an understanding of proskyneô that says that this word means worship! I've actually even seen people who have bowed to the ground for the special people that they have had great respect for. It happened out in Uganda in Africa a few years ago. Through such a reverent safety action showed his heartfelt respect, but they worshiped, of course not in any way the people they so bent down! The well-known Bible translation American Standard Version says in a footnote to Matt.2: 11 following the word proskyneô: "The Greek word signifying a reverent safety action, whether it is displayed against a creature or the Creator."

But if proskyneô denotes a reverent safety actions can be viewed from both the Creator and the created, why we translate this word not a Norwegian deferential proportionality expression that has a similar wide and broad implications? Why do we translate proskyneô not consistent with, for example. falling down or shelf? Would not precisely by such words and expressions reveal that it is a reverent safety actions can be directed against both God and man? Would not precisely by such translations bring out the Greek word far and wide meaning and scope? I just ask. Each reader will make his own thoughts from the material here presented. For my own part, I am convinced that there are such words and phrases we must use to render the meaning content of proskyneô in an honest and proper manner. You can bow down and worship both God and king, but one can not worship both God and king! By translating proskyneô to worship at irregular intervals in its sole discretion, increases also the translators is a colossal power and authority! When they sometimes translates this word to fall down and worship, and other times it translates to worship, it is in reality the ones who decide who the Bible readers to worship! And everyone could imagine what the result of this can be if translators are sitting with preconceived opinions about who is worthy of worship! The scriptures are never proskyneô as a "divine indication" - that is the recipient of proskyneô must be a God - and of course the word should never be used as such by us! In every respect it seems to me to be more accurate and better to translate proskyneô with "to fall reverently down", or "to praise". Moreover, it is also interesting to note that neither Paul, James, or Peter ever offer educational instruction that Christians will perform proskyneô to Jesus! (Check for yourself!) If Jesus really was worshiped in the Gospels, and the word proskyneô was used to describe this worship, as one would really expect to see that this word was retrieved and used again later by the New Testament authors. But they do that is not. However, the word used often in the Gospels in real encounter situations where people fall for Jesus, and in Revelation where the heavenly hosts stand face to face with God and the Lamb and fall down them. This is a good indication that proskyneô primarily refers to the specific physical nedbøyningshandlingen you show or do the people you meet and stands directly opposite. When Jesus walked on this earth, there were many people who came to him and worshiped him (proskyneô). In line with what has been said above, this does not mean that they worshiped Jesus! It does, however, that they showed him great honor and respect - as a prophet of God's End or the long-awaited royal Messiah. Just as the prophets of God and God's anointed kings were shown respect and honor through a nedbøyningshandling (proskyneô) in the Old Testament, such was the prophet and the anointed king over somebody, Jesus, shown the same respect in the New Testament! Nedbøyningshandlingen did not change character or content from OT to NT. It was at the time of Jesus is still a natural part of the Oriental politeness label. Magi (Matthew 2) thus do not worship a god, but they fell into the respect for a newborn Jewish king! Synagogue (Matthew 9:18) fell down a man he had great respect for, he had suddenly found a new god to worship! The Canaanite woman (Matt. 3:25 p.m.) fell at Jesus because she had heard that he could heal the sick, not because he was a god! We could continue. People fall for Jesus in awe and respect, but they never worship him as a god. In addition to the purely linguistic considerations contained herein proskyneô around the word, it also pointed out how utterly impossible it would be of pious Jews in Jesus' time to suddenly fall down in adoration in front of a man! Readers are invited to really reflect on this! Equally interesting, it may be to reflect on the fact that we never once in the gospels hear about loud protests or objections from any of the pious Jews who stood around and watched as people fell for Jesus (did proskyneô). They would not have cried out in anger and rage if this action would mean worship? In Matt.4: 10 Jesus says that the Lord your God will show you proskyneô and him only shall you give Latreuo. Notice that Jesus did not say that it is only God who will have proskyneô. If Jesus said it, he would have come in direct conflict with his own words in Rev 3: 9 There, he says in fact that he will do so that someone will come and show proskyneô against the believers - that is the people! Similarly, it would have come into conflict with his own words in Matt.18: 26 where he talks about a servant who shows proskyneô against an earthly master. Jesus book that is not in any way proskyneô word of God, but uses it himself in relation to humans. That which God alone should have, on the other hand Latreuo! (The word means to serve or worship a deity). And this admonition from Jesus is consistently followed throughout the NT! Jesus himself never Latreuo. Only God the Father (24 times) and different idols (2 times)! (The word occurs 21 times in the verb form: Matt 4:10, Luke 1:74, 2:37, 4:8, Acts 7:7,42; 24:14, 26:7, 27:23, Rom. 1:9 , 25; File. 3:3, 2 Tim. 1:3, Heb. 8:5, 9:9,14, 10:2, 12:28, 13:10; Revelation. 7:15, 22:3 + five times a substantival form: Jn. 16:2, Rom. 9:4, 12:1, Heb. 9:1.6). NT also has another word that directly means worship or worship, namely sebo. Also this will be consistently applied only either of the true God (9 times) or idolatry (1 time). Neither sebo, or any of this word derivations, sebomai (No. 4576 in Strong's lexicon), eusebeo (2151), sebazomai (4573), sebasma (4574) or theosebes (2318), are ever used in relation to Jesus! If we try to unravel together the threads regarding this in worship, we can thus affirm that Jesus never receive Latreuo or sebo - the typical words used it to grow, serve and worship a deity - but only receive proskyneô - a word that has a more general and public importance of showing respect for anyone. We have also seen that many people in the Bible received proskyneô - unless it meant that they were asked to or worshiped! On this basis, I think personally that it seems highly implausible when someone (unfortunately some Bible translators!) Trying to get us to believe that Jesus was worshiped because people bowed down before him (showed him proskyneô). Here are some interesting statements from theological quarters in connection with the word proskyneô and the whole question of the worship of Jesus: Bible Translations sometimes do not reflect the truth found in the inspired original, but only a prejudice that underpins an established traditional doctrine. One of the tasks of the learned Bible scholar is to detect such misstatement. (Sir Anthony Buzzard, "Focus on the Kingdom", Vol 5 No. 10, July, 2003) Is it demonstrably clear from Scripture that Christ alone is God and that he should be worshiped as such? The most eminent theologians in Protestantism reply no. (Dr. John Milner: End of Religious Controversy, Let. 9, p.76) At the time of Jesus were to fall down some quite common in the Eastern Roman Empire, both in official circles and in daily life less formal contexts in which people from different social strata met. ....... Social etiquette demanded visible gestures of deference and respect from an inferior to a superior all the way in this hierarchy. When they were facing a person of high dignity, it was expected that they performed a deep deflection or nedfalling. The Greek verb you used to describe such a nedfalling was proskyneô. (Jason D. BeDuhn, Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament, University Press of America, 2003, p.41-49)

The examples of the use of proskyneô as we have discussed above (mrk. - the author is referring to his own review of the word), serves little to enhance the presentation of evidence that Christ was worshiped (ie God). The ambiguity in the meaning of proskyneô, which can be used both oriental respectful deflection and also truly worship, making it impossible to draw reliable conclusions from the material we have at our disposal. (Wainwright, The Trinity and the New Testament, p.104) It can not be proved that the word (proskyneô) in some of these cases refers to nothing more than a respectful and humble submission action. Josephus uses the word of the chief priests. This tells us that there can be about anything more than a physical nedfallingshandling characterized by deep humility and a desire to honor the falling down. (Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, 1909, Vol.4, p.943) The thought never showed up at his disciples that he (Jesus) put themselves at God's side or took God's place as the human central object of worship. They prayed to God alone. (Professor Paul Wernle, The Beginnings of Christianity, Vol I, by Oxford: Williams & Norgage, 1903) In all these cases (the author refers to various episodes in the Gospels where people fall for Jesus) was proskyneô clearly the culturally appropriate and usual way to plead with a person of high dignity, ie, one that had power and authority to help a person in need. The fact that this power could be and probably was thought of as a heavenly effect in most cases, meant not that the one who exercised it were divine. (James DG Dunn, Did the First Christian Worship Jesus? The New Evidence Testament, Westminster John Knox Press, 2010, p.10) Jesus' deep respect for the one God, which he shared with all the pious Jews of his time, among both supporters and opponents, making it difficult to imagine a real worship of him before his resurrection. (His Kvalbein, Jesus. What would he do? Who was he? Luther Publishers, 2008, s.309-310) Be assured that the God the Jews worship the same God that we worship. Their holy scriptures, the law and the prophets, we honor and read aloud in our meetings. And because we worship the God of the Jews just as there is one thing we can not be accused of, and that is that we come with something new! (Church Father Minicius Felix, Octavius, 2nd century AD) Both Jesus, Acts and Revelation emphasizes that God alone is worshiped. (Bible Study, Oslo, 1977, B.5, s.786) The question we brought up for discussion in this chapter, it was about Jesus in some way learned or legitimate prayer and worship to the Trinity, the Spirit of God or themselves. Personally, I can not imagine anything but an honest relationship to facts force us to answer a definite no in this issue - even though we had to work a bit first with some unfortunate renderings and translations in No-2011 before we could draw this conclusion . (The fact that one may encounter embossed clear theological translations, is very regrettable, but unfortunately not unknown!) What we certainly see is that when Jesus taught the Samaritan woman about true worship of God, so he taught her, only to worship the Father! No one else! He also said that it was the kind of worshipers the Father would have! Anyone who follows this advice, should thus be on firm ground. And when the disciples asked Jesus to teach them about prayer, he taught them only to pray to the Father! No one else! "So you ask," he said, Our Father, who art in heaven ..... This is a consistent pattern that is fixed and is never shaken by the Gospels. There is only one God, the Father, and no one else but him to please or be worshiped! Trinity, the Spirit of God or Jesus will never ever made into objects of prayer or worship.

Related links: http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/01/nr-185-trinity-doctrine-reasons-in.html http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/01/nr-186-trinity-doctrine-is-based-on.html http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/01/nr-187-range-of-jesus-atonement.html

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