søndag 29. april 2012

Nr. 295: How often Jesus spoke of God's Spirit as a separate divine person?

Nr. 295:

How often Jesus spoke of God's Spirit as a separate divine person?

By Fred Vidar Hjortland

It was when the Catholic church was supreme and the state church that Trinity took root. Before it was just a bounce believers Tertullian who believed in this heresy that God is triune. Prior to that, the faithful in many ways a Jewish \ Christian understanding of this. After that it was a pagan \ Christian understanding Simplified said.

As readers probably noticed, I write God's spirit with little "to". In the biblical reason text - the Hebrew and Greek biblical manuscripts - there is no direct guidance on the use of small or capital letter - all words were originally written with the same letter size. However, I choose small letter because I think this spelling is most consistent with a Jewish understanding of the spirit or wind / breath of God. For if we write the Spirit with a capital letter, the people's thoughts immediately go in the direction of a proper name of a person - and it represents in my opinion a serious wrong understanding of this phrase! Several theologians have come up with the same recognition and has largely moved on to writing God's spirit with little "to". In such Swedish Bible 2000 can be seen manifestations of this in my opinion better and more accurate understanding.

So much for spelling.

How do you write the word, however, is not that important. It is the sense you define the word that is decisive. Trinity doctrine says that the spirit is the third person or entity in the Godhead. The question remains whether this is a thought that hears a later dogma formation, or if there is something Jesus himself taught and passed on to his disciples. Did he ever them that God's Spirit was a separate divine person?

The answer is again no. This never happens! Not once does Jesus teach any man that God's spirit is nothing more than a page or a designation of the Father, even.

Jesus has a whole through the Jewish perspective on the spirit, that perspective is found everywhere in the Old Testament. From this perspective, not God's spirit a separate person, but God himself in the activity and action. God's power and presence comes as a mighty wind invisible and perform his work in the form of miracles or in the form of sacred inspiration of the prophets. When the Spirit of God hovered over the waters in Genesis, it was God himself who was the business! No other deity person! When God's Spirit came upon the prophets, it was God himself who inspired them! No one else! It is fundamentally important that we obtain this Jewish and Old Testament understanding of God's spirit! Without such background knowledge, we will in fact be able to easily get to misunderstand statements about the Spirit of God in the New Testament. We shall therefore dwell a bit more with this and take the time to listen to some skilled theologians and hear what they have to say about the matter: The Old Testament certainly not for God's spirit as a person, either according to a strict philosophical understanding or from a Semitic understanding. God's spirit is simply God's power. Whether this is sometimes depicted as separate from God, it is because God's breath is effective "out" him (Isaiah 48:16, 63:11, 32:15). .... Some very few times attach to the Old Testament authors God's spirit emotions or intellectual activity (Isa. 63:10; Wis 1:3-7). When such expressions are used, they are only metaphors, explained by the fact that the Ruaha was considered to be the seat of intellectual acts and feeling (1 Exodus 41:8). (New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, Vol 14, pp. 574, 575) In these cases (ie, the instances in the Old Testament) does not mean "spirit of" one's own being, in any way separate from the person himself, but the person's current strength and power (jmfr.1.Mos 45:27, 2 Kings 2:15, 1 Samuel 30:12, Hag 1:14). Why should we believe that people behave differently when the phrase "spirit of" is used about God? When we hear the Dom14: 6 that "the spirit of the Lord" came the mighty Samson so that he could tear apart a lion, this meant that (person) of the Holy Spirit came upon Samson? No, it is meant is that the power of God came upon Samson, and gave him strength (see also Dom.6: 34, 11:29). There's not here any "hints" about a person separate from the Father within the Godhead acting in relation to individuals. See, for example ... 2.Kong.2: 16, 1.Sam.10: 6, 11:6). (Allan J. Hauser, The Genesis Debate, Sheffield, England: JSOT Press, 1982, p.119) It can not be proven from all passages in the Old Testament where the Holy Spirit is mentioned, that this is a person of the Godhead. There is now an almost universal agreement among scholars, commentators, that the "Holy Spirit" in the Jewish language does not mean anything other than divine inspiration. The term does not describe a person. (JD Michaelis, Remarks Wed John 16:13-15, cited by Wilson, Unitarian Principles Confirmed by Trinitarian Testimonies, p.477)

From what has been said here, it should be clearly stated that the spirit throughout the Old Testament history is the energy of a personal God. It is not an independent or independent hypostasis. (Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, 1909, art. Holy Spirit, p.390) God's "spirit" or "breath" means the Old Testament God's creative and innovative force: "You send your spirit out, they are created, and you make the earth's shape new again" (Psalm 104:30) ("New Testament", Erik Gunnes, Gyldendal Norwegian Publishers, 1969, glossary) That "the Holy Spirit" speaks to individuals, is something we often hear about in the rabbinical writings. But this does not of course believe that the Holy Spirit has personality. (Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1883, p.139 n) Another text depicts the Spirit of God as his agent in creation. Since such terms probably was seen as substitutes for God, Judaism made them never to separate "persons", as Christianity did. (Dr. Moore, The Christian Conspiracy, p.38) Spirit is the principle of life and basic life activity. Spirit is the breath of life (1.Mos.6: 17, 7:15.22, ...). The breath is God's breath, the wind, which is given to man from God .... Yahweh's spirit or God (Elohim) spirit is a force that has a unique impact on the people ... and Yahweh's spirit is a force that initiates acts of Yahweh, who is both savior and judge. Yahweh's spirit is often the force that inspires prophecy (4.Mos.11: 17ff, 24:2, 2.Sam.23: 2, 1.Krøn.12: 18, Jes.61: 1, Micah 3:8, Ez .2:2, 3:12.14.24, 8:3, 11:1.5.24, 37:1, 43:5,, Nehemiah 9:30, Slow Arias 7:12). The prophet is a spirit man (Hosea 9:7). (Dictionary of the Bible, John L. McKenzie) "God's Spirit," which is so frequently mentioned and if the works are so varied and important in Israel's religious life is not different from God. The term indicates either no division of the Godhead. God's Spirit is God himself, breathing, living, active full of energy in the world - that "God at work." Spirit is personal, because God is personal. .... God has life in himself, and is the source of all life in the universe. When you hear about different ways the fullness of this life force manifests itself, so it is explicitly Spirit of God we hear about. (Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol.VI, p.255) According to Jewish thought is not the spirit of God a divine person. In this connection it is interesting and important to note that Jewish people have talked about and believed in God's spirit in the millennia, although this has ever made them binitarer! That their God would be a topersons God is a thought that has never dropped them. We can therefore with EJ Fortman stating that: "The Jews never regarded the spirit as a person, nor is there any solid evidence That any Old Testament writer held this view" (Edward J. Fortman, The Triune God, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972, pp.6, 15). Now we all know that Jesus lived and worked in a Jewish environment. This means that any proclamation of the spirit as a separate deity, must have seemed like sheer blasphemy for Jesus' listeners! The Jews thought that certainly the two divine persons! But we hear ever that some dishes sharp criticism and accusation against Jesus because of this preaching about the spirit? Never! Nor do we hear Jesus ever come forward and say, You know that the Scriptures are God's spirit a way to talk about God, but I tell you, God's Spirit is a person! Never do we hear Jesus saying things like this! Jesus has no agenda to correct the Jews' spiritual understanding. No Jew is ever reprimanded or corrected because of their understanding of the spirit or wind of God. Jesus seems however to be in perfect harmony with its surroundings when it comes to understanding what God's spirit is and means. More specific examples in the four Gospels could be mentioned to illustrate Jesus and the evangelist's thoroughly Jewish understanding of God's spirit. I shall include only a very few. In Luke 1:35 we hear that Jesus is conceived by the Holy Spirit, so that also profess in the Apostles' Creed. But if this is so and God's Spirit is a person other than the Father (Trinitarian doctrine clearly states that the Father and the Spirit are different people - they are not each other, they should be kept separate), then the Christ Spirit's son, and not of the Father, Son! (PS - I write the Spirit with a capital letter here because I refer a point of view of the Trinity). Then it actually directly wrong to say that Jesus is the Father, Son! This piquant problem disappears without a trace if the Spirit of God is given a Jewish significance. This is actually not the Spirit of God a person, but God himself in action. That this is the correct interpretation, the text actually suggests itself to us. It says in fact: The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. This is typical Hebrew parallelism where the same thought and content is repeated with slightly different wording. Here we see clearly that the spirit is identified with God's power, that is, with God himself.

In Mark 1:32 p.m., Jesus says that no one knows the time of the last day than the Father. While the Son is specifically excluded, the spirit is not even mentioned! If you believe in the Trinity, do you actually Jesus a liar here. For the Trinity says that there is a third person in the Godhead which has exactly the same attributes as the Father. This means that the spirit must know exactly as much as the Father. But he denies that this is so. He says that there is only one, the Father, who knows! No one else! But is Jesus really a liar? Of course not! Only the Trinity that rotate things and produce such results. Jesus is true and right about God! When Jesus "forgets" to mention the spirit, it is simply because the spirit of him does not constitute a separate person in the Godhead. On the basis of his Jewish and Old Testament understanding, it would fall to him to say that God's spirit know as much as the Father! In John 8:13-18 Jesus speaks from an Old Testament precept that a case needs several witnesses to have credibility (see 5.Mos 19:15). Two witnesses are the minimum, preferably there should be three. What if there were two divine persons in the heavens, Jesus could have invoked an affirmative testimony from both of these two. Then Jesus would have had two external witnesses to strengthen his own testimony. Jesus discloses an external witness, Father. Again, "forgets" his spirit. Spirit works actually as a non-existent person of Jesus. From a Jewish and Old Testament understanding of God's spirit is not something surprising. It is, however, as expected. In Matthew 12:31-32 Jesus makes mockery of himself against the blasphemy of the Holy Spirit. One of blasphemy is the remission of, the other not. What at first glance seems odd here is that the Father, who otherwise called the Most High God, is not mentioned at all in this context. Is not the blasphemy against the Most High worse than all other profane? Or is the mockery of God the Father which Jesus did not found it necessary to talk about? Is it here so that Jesus suddenly put the Spirit in the first place and totally forget and leave out the Father? For someone who thinks in the Trinity courts, these verses seem rather strange. If, however, we allow the spirit of a Jewish and Old Testament sense, the pieces fall into place. Then it is truly the most high God, Jesus is talking about here. Father does not forgotten, he will only be discussed under a different name! Moreover, it is interesting to note that none of the audience takes up some discussion with Jesus after hearing these words. They do not ask: Why are you talking about the Spirit of God as if it were a divine person as it is possible to mock? Why is not it? Simply because Jesus and his listeners have a common Jewish and Old Testament understanding of God's Spirit does! They understand what Jesus is talking about. No one is provoked.

We let it stay with these examples.

Some might think that it was not surprising that in Old Testament times did not understand that God's Spirit was a separate person in the Godhead, for the way the spirit as was described on was very vague and inadequate. Spirit could not seem to do much in the OT. In New Testament times, everything is different. Such is the thought, but what is reality? When you sit down and make a comparison, one sees in fact no difference. Spirit of God is described by exactly the same properties in the Old and New Testament! The idea thus has no basis in reality. This fact is again something that helps to show us that Jesus and the early Christians continued the Jewish and Old Testament understanding of God's spirit. The table below shows a comparison of how God's Spirit is described in the OT and NT: Spirit of God described the personal characteristics and properties: GT: NT: Spirit can be grieved Jes.63: 10 - But they were stubborn and did his Holy Spirit grieving Ef.4: 30 - Do not grieving the Spirit of God The spirit is willing Ez.1: 12 - where the spirit would go, they went 1.Kor.12: 11 - All of this is the one and the same Spirit, dividing to each one that he will You can be stubborn at, mock, resist or challenge the spirit of Psalm 106:33 - because they were rebellious against his spirit Ap.gj.7 51 - You will always receive the Holy Spirit - as their fathers, lest you too! Matt.10: 31 - blasphemy against the spirit .. Acts 5:9 - how could you and your husband ... unite to challenge the Spirit of God (Overs.: A living book) Spirit is described by the personal pronoun "he" Ez.11: 5 - Spirit of the Lord came upon me, and he said to me

(The word "Ruach" I am. Female!) Joh.16: 13 - For he shall not speak of himself but what he hears, he will speak (The word "pneuma" I am. No sex!) Spirit can dwell inside the human Ez. 36:27 - My spirit will I give within you 1.Kor.3: 16 - do not you know that God's Spirit lives in you Spirit can operate, manage or lead people Dom.13: 25 - Spirit of the Lord began to move him ..... Psalm 143:10 - May your good Spirit lead me Jes.63: 14 - As the cattle go down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord to rest them Rom.8: 14 - all driven by the Spirit of God ... Luk.2: 27 - He was driven by the spirit of the temple Acts 20:22 - bound by the spirit I am going to Jerusalem Spirit can teach, teach, guide people Neh.9: 20 - You gave your good Spirit to teach them Joh.16: 13 - Spirit of Truth shall guide you into all truth Spirit sees and knows everything Psalm 139:7 - Where do I go from your spirit 1.Kor.2: 10 - for the spirit searches all things Spirit can move away or move people 1.Kong.18: 12 - so it goes well so that the Spirit of the Lord carry you away to a place that I do not know about the Acts 8:39 - But when they step out of the water, the Spirit caught Philip away .... But Philip was found in Ashdod. Spirit speaks to people 2.Krøn.18: 23 - How is the Spirit of the Lord passed from me to speak to you? He said the spirit of Philip ...... (Acts 8:29) Spirit can speak through people 2.Sam.23: 2 - Spirit of the Lord speaks through me (David) Matt.10: 20 - but their father's spirit speaks to / through you Spirit can give power to people Micah 3:8 - But I am full of power by the Spirit of Acts 1:8 - But ye shall receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you Spirit is the Spirit of prayer Sak.12: 10 - But the house of David ... I will pour out grace and spirit of Rom.8: 26 - The Spirit itself maketh intercession for us 1) 1) This is an obscure Bible verse. Calvin interprets Romans 8:26 that God's Spirit helps the believer to find words in the prayer. That is, inspires and helps the believer - it does not ask himself to the Father. (Cf. Wayne R. Spear, The Theology of Prayer, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1979, p.45) Other trinitarer believe that the spirit here refers to the human spirit: "The context of the two Verses That Clearly indicates the groaning is done by the spirit of the one who is praying. The word Groan is Indicative of pain, Either physical or mental, and there is no conceivable reason for the Holy Spirit two Groan. Our own spirit groans with yearning Which we can not utter, can not vocalize or put in words, When we pray: 'For we know not how to pray as we ought.' "(Wallace, Foy E., The Mission And Medium Of The Holy Spirit, Richard Black Publisher, p.61)

Synopsis of the table: 1. Spirit of God is described by exactly the same properties in the Old and New Testament! 2. These descriptions were certainly not seen as evidence that God's spirit was separate divine person in GT! 3. The similarity in the descriptions suggest that neither the New Testament writers understood God's spirit as a divine person. This is the spirit that is equipped with the will and emotions, thus hangs together that it is God you meet! You go into a holy Presence of God! You come not an impersonal energy similar to electricity, but a personal God!

Let us now look at some general comments from theological quarters regarding the understanding of God's spirit. In the statements below, it is important to remember that things that are said to include the whole of the New Testament, of course, includes the teaching of Jesus in the four Gospels! Spirit is in the NT portrayed as power. (Sverre Aalen, Johanneisk theology, MF, 1979, s.126) In the whole talking the New Testament, like the old, the spirit as a divine force energy, especially in the hearts of men. (A Catholic Dictionary, p.810) Holy Spirit is another way of talking about God. (Robert Carden, One God - The Unfinished Reformation, 2.ed. Grace Christian Press, 2002, p.122) Spirit is, as many have noticed, never indicted as a "you" in either the Old or New Testament. (Dissertation Series, ed. William Baird, No. 61, "The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit ", Jane Schaberg, Scholars Press, 1982, p.7)

One can no more stop to that in the case of a personal nature from such texts as Matthew 10:19-20 and Luke 12:11-12, which can be in the Old Testament. (John McKenzie, Light on the Gospels, pp207-208) That the Spirit of God or the Holy Spirit, not a separate person equal with the Father, is something we can be confident from the following statement of Christ: "All, my father handed over to me. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no know the Father except the Son and the Son will reveal him "(Matthew 11:27). If the Spirit is a person who is as omniscient as the Father, Jesus could not have said this, the Spirit would not be ignorant about some things. Likewise, Jesus says about a future event that "the day and hour knows no one, not even the angels in heaven nor the Son but the Father only" (Matthew 24:36). About Spirit had been a third person in the Trinity, he would have known the day and hour as well as the Father! Art Seized trinitarer take refuge when they encounter texts that states the subordination of the Son, is that such statements only to his human nature. But no one has ever claimed that the Holy Spirit has two natures! If there are two persons in addition to the Father who is also omniscient, I can not understand that Christ's statements above are true. I do not understand how to stick treenighetslærens hypothesized three-knowing people without simultaneously correcting a serious charge against the faithful and true witness, who said that no one but the Father was omniscient. We should unhesitatingly reject a system that so obviously contradicts our blessed Saviour. (Charles Morgridge, The True Believers Defence, Boston, 1837, p.151) Ho Theos (God) is never used in the New Testament to describe the pneuma hagion (Holy Spirit). (Karl Rahn, Theological Investigations (Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1963), 1:143) (Regarding Jesus' personification of God's Spirit as a "comfort" or "advocate" :) When Jesus personified the Spirit under a borrowed name or figurative form - descriptions that were never used in direct or literal descriptions of the Spirit - this is not the personification which suggests that the Spirit has a real personality, but on the contrary, a strong argument against such an understanding. (C. Morgridge, The True Believers Defence, Boston, 1837, p.154) When we speak of God as Spirit, as we are not talking about an impersonal influence, an energy that is sent from God and that is different from him. Nor are we talking about a divine figure, or a being who is a third person in the Godhead. We talk about God and his personal presence in the relationship-related activity. (Geoffrey Lampe (one time Professor of Divinity that Cambridge), God as Spirit, SCM Press, 1984, p.208) The early Christians did not think the Holy Spirit as a separate being or a person, but simply that the divine power that was in the business world and especially in the church. (Arthur Cushman McGiffert, A History of Christian Thought, Vol 1, New York: Scribner's, 1932, p.111)

We have in this section looked at the question of how often Jesus spoke of God's Spirit as a separate divine person. The answer we gave in the introduction was: Never! Hopefully, the review above given weight and substance to this claim. For my part I think it should be demonstrated to reach a different answer!

Related Articles:http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/04/nr-292-seven-important-questions-about.html http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/04/nr-293-seven-important-questions-about.html http://the-heavenly-blog.janchristensen.net/2012/04/nr-294-how-often-jesus-spoke-of-himself.html

Ingen kommentarer:

Legg inn en kommentar