I look forward to not only the 1000-year kingdom, but even more that day when God has removed both the evil and the evil from existence and he creates a new earth and new heavens.
The Jews have a completely different understanding of eternal, dead and much more than us others who, after all, have a wildly Catholic balast, as well as paganism at the bottom of the Gentile Christian.
When, for example, The Jews look at this to stand in the book of life, versus being scattered. Then they are allowed to live for 1 year. In other words, one does not stand in the book of life, one dies. Standing in the Book of Life is something one needs to have mercy at all times.
It's the same thing that will happen when we all meet God, invade the white throne. When we all people who have not come before God have come to the conclusion, decide whether to enter into eternity with God. Or that one is not found worthy and one is destroyed in the lake of fire with Satan, Antichrist, the false prophet, the fallen angels, the demons and all ungodly.
Does the Word of God teach a perpetual burning hell for the lost? Or should they "cease" to exist? What does the scripture say?
The Bible is clear that the so-called annihilation lesson is what the scriptures teach.
What is annihilation lesson?
He who hardships the gospel or fails to receive salvation and comes upon God's side.Will eventually be destroyed. The destruction is then understood as the cessation of existence, destruction. This is what the Bible teaches, nothing else!
Øystein Skarholm writes the following:
The Bible's mention of the loss
In the Bible we find many texts that directly refer to the loss. Understanding what these texts are meant to convey is a crucial factor in an analysis of annihilation learning. Therefore, I will study some aspects that are throughout the Bible's mention of the loss, as well as examining some of the most important texts in particular.
Disappointment in NT
It may be helpful with some introductory words regarding what is contained in New Testament texts associated with the perdition. In the synoptic gospels, Matthew finds more references to hell. The one time this is mentioned in Mark, as well as all Luke's references, can be found at Matthew. In addition, the parable of the rich man and Lazarus is exclusively found at Luke, a text that is often drawn in this context.125Johannes uses a more unique conceptual usage, without references to either hell, hades, torment, fire or the like. Instead, expressions are used as destruction, death and judgment. There is no mention of hell in the apostles' acts. It is spoken of salvation and resurrection, and although God's judgment is sometimes mentioned, it never specifies what this implies.Neither in the letters to Paul can we find specific mention of hell. However, a number of closely related topics are written. In Romans 6.23, death is the wages of sin, while in 1 Cor. 15, 26, the last enemy is destroyed. A repetitive theme is the wrath of God, which will come upon the disobedient (Rom 2.8f; 9,22; 1,18; 2,5; 3,5; 4,15; 5,9; 12,19; 13,4f If 2.3; 5.6; Col 3,6; 1Tess 1.10; 2.16; 5.9). Furthermore, it is clear to Paul that everybody must appear before God's court (eg Romans 2,6: 3,6) and that those who are guilty will perish (eg Romans 2:12, 1 Cor. 1:18). Despite extensive talk about the possibility of destruction, it is only in 2 Thess 1.9 that Paul directly describes what this implies. In the Norwegian translation, it is written: "Your punishment will be eternal destruction away from the Lord's face and from His glory and power." To better understand Stott's view of perdition as destruction, it might be useful to look at the English translation: "They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might." 128 Greek word used, translated125 ACUTE, 2000, p. 42 126 ACUTE, 2000, p. 47 127 ACUTE, 2000, p. 48-49 128 The translation is derived from the English Standard Version (ESV). "Destruction" and "destruction" are "olethron". The word itself does not mean annihilation, but to lose everything that gives its worth value.In this way, the verse can also be used to defend a traditional view of the loss. It may therefore be necessary to remind you that Stotts argumentation in this area is not based on this verse alone, but on the Bible's holistic terminology associated with the destruction. A "passing away from the Lord's face" is not self-explanatory and must be understood in the light of the other Biblical texts.In the other letters we find a mention of the destiny of the lost in Heb. 10,27, where they will be consumed by the judgment and the burning eagerness of God. Hebrews 6,2 describes the judgment as eternal. In Jacob's letter, terminology is used as "death" and "destroys" (James 1:15; 4,12), while in Peter's two letters they speak (1 Pet 4,17) and perdition (2 Pet 3,7). In 2 Pet 2,9 it is unclear whether reference is made to what follows the judgment or what precedes it. In Jud 1.7 draw
It is a parallel between the destruction and the eternal fire that punished Sodom and Gomorrah. In addition, 2 Pet 2,12 talks about the lost destiny. Finally, there are a series of verses in John's revelation. Here, the destruction is described as "the second death" (2.11; 20.6), which is further described as a lake of fire and sulfur (21.8). In 22:15, the lost ones are placed "outside" the new Jerusalem, while 11.18 talks about "destroying those who destroy the earth." In addition, the devil will be thrown into the fire, together with the beast and the false prophet, where they will be tormented day and night forever and ever (20.10). Even the death and death kingdom itself will be thrown into the lake of fire (20,14). In addition, there are a number of references in GT. The cultural and religious context makes these more challenging to interpret, and it will therefore mainly focus on the New Testament texts. Concept Uses in Revelation of Destruction In his statement, Stott focuses on language and imagery when analyzing the biblical texts.132 In his book, "Eternal Life or Death," Berg makes some of the same. However, instead of focusing on destruction as destruction, the Bible's description of death is examined as the destiny of lost ones (eg Romans 6,21; 6,23; 1,15; Ezek 18,4; 18,20; Sal 143,3; Open 2.11; 20.6; 20.14; 21.8). These verses can not mention anything other than the final and absolute death. In addition, there are other words that express the same meaning. In Sal 9,6 they are wiped out, while those in Sal 37.38 go to bed and have their future cut off. In Malatians 4.1-3, all who do injustice should burn up, the same is true in Matt 3.12. Other expressions used for the lost ones include to be destroyed (Job 4:20), destroyed (Sal 145:20), destroyed (1 Corinthians 3:17), destroyed (2 Thess 2,8), consumed (Hebrews 10,27) and walked to the ground in the same way as the animals (2 Pet 2,12; Sal 49,13; Fork 3,18f). In particular, Berg draws Sal 37.20 where we find: "But the lawless goes to bed. The enemies of the Lord disappear like the flower fairy on the ground, they are gone like smoke. "Bergen's argument for destruction as an eternal and absolute death largely reflects Stott's thoughts of destruction as destruction. Their conclusion is the same. Berg writes himself: [...] The destruction must consist of an absolute destruction, as the many biblical places tell us, not in perpetual torment. The Greek words used for destruction or perishment are by the way the same as other places are translated with: go to the ground, be destroyed, be consumed, destroyed. To be lost means: to be destroyed. Eternal death will meet those who do evil and show eternal life. Fudge also deals with the different expressions used for the destruction of the Bible, and, like Stott, he specifically focuses on those who deal with fire. He highlights the words of Jesus in Matthew 13, 40, 43, where they were thrown into the furnace. Fudge emphasizes that an unreasonable fire is a recurring theme both in GT and NT, with reference to Ezek. 21.3f; Am 5.6 and Matt 3.12. The fire of this God expresses an unreserved destruction of what is thrown in it. Consistently, the fire is eternal, a symbol that there is no hope for what burns in it. The furnace itself is also something we know from the GT. In Dan 3 Shadrak, Meshach, and Abednego are thrown into the furnace of Nebuchadnezzar without burning. This because the angel of God rocked them (v. 28). It is clear, however, that God will not save those who are thrown into the fire of destruction. Maternity 13: 40-43 also offers examples of paralysis sources beyond the use of fire: in the furnace they will lose crying and cutting teeth. We also find the same expression. in Luke 13.28 and Matt 25.30. Like our everyday associations, crying in the Bible is used to express fear, sorrow and pain. In Isaiah 22:12 the Jews cry over the destruction of Jerusalem, and in your 9,1 we cry over the fallen in the people. Cutting of teeth occurs both in GT and NT in conjunction with anger (Sal 37,12; Complaint 2.16; Apg 7.54). Neither the Matthew text nor the term of the Bible in the Bible suggests that the lost cry and the cutting of teeth will last forever. On the contrary, they describe the lost cuts of teeth in Sal 112, where the continuation is that they are thrown away and their longings become nothing (v. 10). An assumption that crying and cutting of teeth is a description that refers to the perpetual torment of the lost one does not originate in the biblical texts, but occurred a long time after the creation of the Bible. The lost fear, sorrow, pain and anger are their reaction when they realize their destiny. This does not mean that this destiny must consist of an eternal conscious mind. It can deal with the certainty of an eternal exclusion from the kingdom of God, and instead they must perish in the devouring fire. Gehenna Among the terms used in the Bible's dissemination of destruction, we find the Greek word Gehenna. Jesus' first reference to this is found in Matthew 5,22, where it is translated in Norwegian to "hell." A natural question is whether we, with the word hell, get the same associations as Jesus' listeners received when he taught Gehenna. "Hell" is often associated with the medieval divorce
calling, including torture. "Gehenna", in its view, does not make sense if one is not familiar with the geography around Jerusalem today. This is probably the reason why the word is used only once outside the gospels (Jas 3,6 - without reference to the final destiny of the lost), and that other terminology is used in NT's books aimed at heathen and relocated Jews. Because of different frame of reference, therefore, a Norwegian Bible translation might seem misleading when it refers to "hell." Gehenna is derived from the Hebrew "ge'hinnom" or the valley of Hinnom. This was located just south of Jerusalem and was a notorious place for idolatry was sacrificed to Molech - the god of the dead. In addition, here were the bodies and the sacrifice bag was thrown (Jer 31.40). This may indicate that Gehenna was a garbage site, which has been a popular assumption. However, archaeological findings suggest that the valley did not work like this, but that it contained inter alia burial sites and crematoriums. This fits well with the thought of Hinnom's valley as a place of flames and bodies. This is probably the place Isaiah refers to when he speaks about the land that will not die and the fire that does not extinguish (Isaiah 66:24). Arthur Hoyles has written a full description of Gehenna. The details of the description can not be fully demonstrated historically, but it conveys the core of the Jewish perception of the place: Here the fire burned day and night, destroying the garbage and purifying the atmosphere of the smell of rotten fish or decaying vegetation. In de tijd van oorlog zullen de carcasses of vanquished vijanden mengen met de vuil, waardoor de patriottische schrijvers zijn voorzien van een clue als de bestemming van hun eigen vervolgers. De var bestemt for at blive ødelagt i de fires, som aldrig blev quenched. In the gospels, it is only Jesus who uses Gehenna as a description of the destruction. This occurs on four occasions: 1. In Matthew 5,22 Jesus mentions various sins that lead to Gehenna. 2. In Matthew 5,29f and Mark 9,43ff, it is conveyed that it is better to go blindly in life than to end up in Gehenna. In Mark 9, then, the quotation from Jes 66, 24 follows. 3. Nos. Matthew 10,28, and Luke 12,5, describes that we should only fear Him who has the power to destroy / throw the soul in Gehenna. 4. In Matthew 23,15; 23.33 Jesus condemns some Pharisees who lead people to Gehenna. None of the aforementioned texts mention the duration or function of punishment.143 Jesus' preaching is based on the knowledge of the Jewish audience, where the valley of Hinnom is commonly known as the place of condemned and lost. How to convey the perilability of being lost. Based on this, Gehenna is used frequently in literary literature when talking about the loss. However, the literature is not consistent with what this destruction really means. What one can safely conclude is that Gehenna conveyed terror and disgust to the Jewish audience. The lack of consensus in literature reflects the lack of clarity in the original texts as to the content and duration of the penalty placed in Gehenna. We therefore find no direct connection between Jesus' use of Gehenna and an understanding of perdition as eternal conscious mind. Jesus and inter-Testament authors use the term in a manner similar to our own use of "hell"; It describes the perilability of being lost. The Jews' associations with Gehenna are, however, different from Western beliefs of hell. When Jesus spoke of Gehenna, this did not convey a place of eternal torture, but a place where they died disappeared in fire and indignation. God's Wrath In his article "Luther's View of Hell," Erling Utnem points out that Luther's understanding of the loss is directly related to God's wrath. Both hell, fire and other biblical denominations of destruction should be understood as synonyms of this. Such a thought is supported, among other things. of Sal 21,10: "You make them a flaming furnace when you show. The Lord will devour them in their wrath and the fire will devour them. "146 Such an interpretation is basically consistent with the annihilation lesson, unless the judgment is defined as eternal torment. Utnem specifies that Luther understands the loss as just this, but not on the basis of "metaphysical speculation about the immortality of the soul." The suppression is understood as eternal pain because the judgment contains all the judge's characteristics. Therefore, it is also eternal and infinite. However, it can be discussed whether this is a matter of course. That the wrath of God always potentially exists is not the same as always being exercised. In that case, God's wrath must have had an outlet before this world was created. Nor can it be argued that His actions are eternal in what they enter into force, without simultaneously implying that creation can not cease to exist. If God's creative power can cease, may the same be true of His anger? It is therefore necessary to present the reasons why God chooses to maintain his anger over the lost. This must also match the understanding of God's kindness and righteousness, an aspect we shall now seearmor on. The Sea of Fire in Revelation of John The interpretation of Rev. 14, 9-11 is challenged by another text found in John's revelation. In chapter 20, verse 10, we read: "And the devil who had seduced them was thrown into the sea with fire and sulfur, where also the beast and the false prophet are. There they will be tormented day and night forever. "Unlike the other texts we have investigated, this is neither the fire nor the smoke described as eternal, but the torment itself. Stott states that this is the only scripture where pain is directly related to eternity. He also emphasizes that the description includes only the devil, the beast and the false prophet. Stott thus suggests that the verse alone can not serve as a basis for a traditional understanding of the loss, as it does not directly refer to people who are lost. Traditional interpretation will therefore depend on support from other texts. This does not mean that the verse can not be interpreted in such a direction, but it is a relevant point to bring along.185 In the text, the devil's, the beast's and the false prophet's torment is placed in the sea of fire and sulfur, as other places in the Revelation book mention like the "lake of fire". The term is used solely in among the interesting texts to look into, if one wishes to investigate whether such an interpretation holds water, there are a number of inter-tribal and apocryphal works. Fudge points out that it has been common to assume that these support the understanding of loss as eternal pain, but also emphasizes that this is not necessarily the case (Fudge, 1994, pp. 191-192). In this task, I have chosen to disregard this debate and focus on the Biblical texts. This book, but both annihilationists and traditionalists agree that this describes the same final destiny that the gospels describe with "Gehenna". Earlier in the book we are already familiar with the lake of fire, and it is also described later in the book. To understand its meaning, we must look into all these verses. The beast and the false prophet The first to be thrown into the fire is the beast and the false prophet (Rev. 19:20). Like Stott, Fudge understands these as symbols of different evil in the world. These will neither exist forever nor be able to experience pain. See for example 1 Corinthians 15:24, "Then comes the end when he surrenders his royal power to God, his Father, after he has destroyed all powers, powers and powers." In this context, the fire can not be a tool for eternal conscious consciousness. Instead, it indicates God's total victory over the wickedness of the world. An absolute annihilation of the evil forces that oppose Him. The lake of fire thus acts as a picture a total destruction. The devil When we come to the verses dealing with the devil (20.7-10), we see that they refer to Esek 38-39. Gog and Magog, as mentioned in verse 8, we know from these chapters. In the chapters of Ezekiel God exterminates the evil forces by pouring rain, hail stones, fire and sulfur over them (38,22). Fudge points out that this is in direct contradiction to the verses that follow, where their destruction will be given by giving birth to birds of prey and wildlife (39,4) and that the people of Israel will loot the remains (39,10). The pictures taken are different, yet the paintings are in perfect harmony. This because their message is the same: Gog and his people will be destroyed. The last battle that John witnesses, where Satan brings his people to battle, reflects this struggle. Satan is defeated and thrown into the fire. Here he will be tormented with the beast and the false prophet day and night forever and ever (v. 10). A common interpretation, in which the beast and the false prophet are understood as the evil of the world, implies a literal interpretation of this. That these are personalized is necessary to enable John to reveal his revelation. Berg thus describes it like this: In verse 10 it is said that the devil was thrown into the sea with fire and sulfur. [...] As mentioned above, it is identical to the absolute and final extinction. Rev.. 20.10 is thus the story of the devil's destruction. Fudge admits that if the fire still symbolizes annihilation, this seems to be contrary to John being able to witness the devil's eternal torment. There is no obvious interpretation, but until now the text has not mentioned the destiny of the lost people. No people have been thrown into the fire, and no verse has described their destiny as eternal torment. A more satisfactory interpretation of this verse could help to strengthen the durability of the annihilation teacher, but it does not depend on this. Death and Death Kingdom In verse 14, death and death is also thrown into the lake of fire. This fits well with the other biblical texts. In Isaiah 25,8, it is prophesied that God will extinguish death forever, and in 1 Corinthians 15,26 Paul proclaims that the last enemy destroyed is death itself. In this context, the fire lake can not symbolize other than annihilation, just as it was the animal and the false prophet. Death must be destroyed. An interesting point can be made
out of John so precise: "And the fire of fire, it is the second death" (v. 14b). The wording is a linguistic tool John uses on several other occasions in the Revelation: "[...] Gold is full of incense, they are the prayers of the saints" (5,8), "Linen is the righteous deeds of the saints" (19.8) [...] The other dead were not alive until the thousand years passed. This is the first resurrection »(20.5). On all these occasions, the second description is the interpretation of the first. If this also applies to the fire and the second death, "the second death" is a clearer description of what the lake of fire really is. Such an understanding means that even the fire will end. It will be swallowed up by God and destroyed, as the Bible describes the destiny of death. Fudge admits that the interpretation is not obvious, but he argues that it is in coherence with the Bible's other texts. If both death and fire are biblical images of destruction, and this is an eternally conscious torment, what does it mean that the torment itself is to be tormented? On the other hand, if the destruction is extinction, the Bible's message seems to be fulfilled. Death shall be no more (Rev 21.4), Death is destroyed (1 Cor. 15, 26). Never more will somebody die.193 Regardless of whether such an interpretation is correct, Fudge is its main point: The verse uses the lake of fire as a picture of complete destruction. The lost people in Chapter 20, verse 15, the fate of human beings are mentioned for the first time in connection with the fire: "And if anyone was not written into the book of life, he was thrown into the fire." In chapter 21, this is repeated, as well as the description of the lake of fire as "the second death" (v. 8). An interpretation of what this implies depends on what understanding one has of the fire. If the lake of fire represents annihilation, as it has been argued for here, this verse will also underline the annihilation lesson. Traditionists have often interpreted the verses to describe an existence without God.194 Without hope of resurrection to life, without communion with God and without His presence. Such a description can not be found in the text itself.195 An understanding of the loss as an absence of God refers to Hegstad as follows: Such an expulsion undoubtedly has a point, namely that the destruction is the last consequence of which ultimately human beings themselves have chosen to take responsibility for. [...] But it does not yet come to terms with the biblical thought of God as the active in the loss-because the loss is an expression of God's judgment, it also implies a meeting with God himself. It is difficult to get beyond God's presence too in the loss. See for example Hebrews 10,31: "It is terrible to fall into the hands of the living God!". If one acknowledges that God at all times maintains everything in existence, it is clear that neither lost human beings can exist without Him. A simple description of the loss as "absence of God" is therefore not sufficient. A more durable understanding would be that the loss is the absence of God's kindness. Verses like 2 Thess 1.9 can be used to promote such a vision, and it can be combined with the idea of God as active in the destruction. But none of the verses that talk about this suggests eternal existence, and they are therefore not contrary to the annihilation teachings. The presence of His judgment is to be found in the destruction of the lost, as is the absence of His goodness. At the same time, their choice to reject God will have the consequence that they do not share in the kingdom of heaven, and their destruction will end in destruction. Summary on the Fire of the Sea On two occasions, first by the beast and the false prophet, then by death and death kingdom, the fire lake appears to represent annihilation. As far as Satan's fate is concerned, we have not reached a final conclusion, but this is a separate theme. Fudge claims that nothing in the text prevents the idea of annihilation, but instead points in that direction, when it suggests that the real meaning of the fire's lake is the second death. Matthew 10,28 I have previously described how the Bible's general mention of destruction utilizes terminology that supports the annihilation teacher. Expression as extinction (Sal 9,6), burning up (Mal 4,1), destruction (1 Corinthians 3:17), extinction and destruction (2 Thess 2,8) to undergo as the animals (2 Pet 2, 12) and to disappear like the flowers on the ground (Sal 37,20) point in the direction of a final eradication of those who are lost. In order to deepen this perspective, it may be fruitful to look into one of the most important texts in this context. In Matthew 10,28 we find the text we also examined in conjunction with Augustin's thoughts about the soul: "Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but can not kill the soul. Fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell. "Here it is clear that God has the power to destroy both body and soul. Unless Jesus exaggerates or comes with empty threats, the verse seems to imply that this is exactly what will happen to hell. This is supported by the holistic understanding of soul and body as the Bible works
to convey the question therefore becomes if the lost can be destroyed and still exist. In 1 Cor. 15.42ff is the resurrection of the saved. Among other things, they will arise into indifference (v. 42), which they lost will not inherit (v. 50). Also immortality is given to the saved (v. 53f). If immortality and immortality are the characteristics of the saved receive in the resurrection, it seems clear that the destruction of body and soul that will take place in hell can only have one conclusion: Annihilation. The argument is closely linked to the one we have investigated regarding the immortality of the soul, but it is especially difficult in this context to understand how Jesus can speak of the destruction of the soul if it will forever be in existence. In this connection it has been claimed that A resurrection from death in itself will affect human nature. Therefore, the wicked will also be qualitatively different after a resurrection. Fudge rejects this idea by referring to Henry Constable. All resurrections until Jesus' resurrection occurred without the resurrected acquiring new qualities. For example, Jesus' resurrection of Lazarus in John 11 demonstrates that it is fully possible to arise from the dead and still to be fatal. Constable therefore calls for evidence that resurrection itself results in changes in human mortality. According to him, this applies solely to the resurrection that happens through the power of Jesus. The Bible contains several examples of resurrection of human beings from death to die again. A description of destruction like "the second death", in which it is eternal, seems to make sense. Resurrection to eternal life, with immortals, "spiritual bodies" ("soma pneumatikon") belong to the resurrected in Christ. In addition, it is worth noting that in the Matthew verse Jesus describes the body and soul of the lost in the same way. They will both be destroyed. Unless otherwise insinuated in the text, it would therefore be unnatural to assume that the destruction that takes place will have different results. If the bodily destruction will result in the body going away, the natural interpretation will be that the same applies to the soul.